Based on the given data, the scatter plot of CCI vs Median Household Income is plotted.

From the scatter plot, it can be seen that the data points appear to be scattered around a straight line with positive slope, such that there appears to be a line trend between the Median Household Income and CCI. Therefore it is likely that there is a positive linear relationship between the Median Household Income and CCI.

1(2)

A correlation analysis is carried out between the variables Median Household Income and CCI, and the result is shown below:

**Correlation: CCI, Median Household Income ($1000) **

** **

Pearson correlation of CCI and Median Household Income ($1000) = 0.829

P-Value = 0.006

From the result, it can be seen that the correlation coefficient is 0.829. This implies that there is a strong positive linear relationship between Median Household Income and CCI.

The coefficient of determination r2 can be calculated by taking the square of the correlation coefficient.

r2 = 0.829^2 = 0.6872

The coefficient of determination r2 being 0.6872 implies that 68.72% of variation in CCI can be explained using the Median Household Income

Also 1 – r2 = 1 – 0.6872 = 0.3128

This implies that 31.28% of variation in CCI cannot be explained using the Median Household Income.

1(3)

A regression analysis is carried out between the variables CCI and Median Household Income such that a linear model in predicting CCI is to be fitted using Median Household Income as the independent variable. The result is shown below:

**Regression Analysis: CCI versus Median Household Income ($1000) **

** **

Analysis of Variance

Source DF Adj SS Adj MS F-Value P-Value

Regression 1 2829 2829.0 15.43 0.006

Median Household Income ($1000) 1 2829 2829.0 15.43 0.006

Error 7 1283 183.3

Total 8 4112

Model Summary

S R-sq R-sq(adj) R-sq(pred)

13.5389 68.80% 64.34% 50.08%

Coefficients

Term Coef SE Coef T-Value P-Value VIF

Constant -599 176 -3.41 0.011

Median Household Income ($1000) 19.22 4.89 3.93 0.006 1.00

Regression Equation

CCI = -599 + 19.22 Median Household Income ($1000)

From the normal probability plot of the CCI, it can be seen that the data points all lying close to a straight line. This implies that the residual is approximately normally distributed. Also from the residual vs fitted value plot, it can be seen that the data points appeared to be randomly scattered about the zero value horizontal line. This implies that the residual has no relationship with the fitted value. Therefore the linear regression model is adequate.

Based on the result of regression analysis, the fitted model is found to be:

CCI = -599 + 19.22 Median Household Income ($1,000)

The slope coefficient of 19.22 implies that when the Median household Income increases by $1,000, the CCI is expected to increase by 19.22.

1(4)

From the result of the regression analysis, the standard error of the estimate is found to be 13.5389. This implies that standard deviation of the residual in the regression is 13.5389. The descriptive statistics of CCI alone is shown below:

**Descriptive Statistics: CCI **

** **

Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1 Median Q3 Maximum

CCI 9 0 91.66 7.56 22.67 61.60 67.20 91.50 110.70 125.40

The standard deviation of CCI alone is 22.67. Therefore with the Median Household Income, the standard deviation decreased from 22.67 to 13.5389.

1(5)

In order to determine whether there is significant linear relationship between the CCI and the Median Household Income, a hypothesis test is carried out on the slope term of the regression.

Null hypothesis: The slope term of the regression is zero.

Alternative hypothesis: The slope term of the regression is not zero.

Take the level of significance for the test be 0.05.

From the result of the regression, the test statistic for the slope term is 3.93.

The degree of freedom is 9 – 2 = 7, the corresponding p-value is 0.006

Since the p-value of 0.006 is smaller than the level of significance of 0.05. The null hypothesis is rejected. Therefore it can be concluded that the slope term of the regression is not zero, and thus there is significant linear relationship between CCI and Median Household Income.

2.

Based on the given data, a multiple linear regression model is built in predicting the average price of gold from the price of copper, silver and aluminum. The result is shown below:

**Regression Analysis Homework: Gold ($ per versus Copper (cent, Silver ($ pe, Aluminum (ce **

** **

Analysis of Variance

Source DF Adj SS Adj MS F-Value P-Value

Regression 3 104445 34815.0 12.19 0.002

Copper (cents per lb.) 1 18 18.1 0.01 0.939

Silver ($ per oz.) 1 69634 69633.6 24.38 0.001

Aluminum (cents per lb.) 1 26208 26208.3 9.18 0.016

Error 8 22845 2855.7

Total 11 127291

Model Summary

S R-sq R-sq(adj) R-sq(pred)

53.4386 82.05% 75.32% 66.28%

Coefficients

Term Coef SE Coef T-Value P-Value VIF

Constant -51.6 87.8 -0.59 0.573

Copper (cents per lb.) 0.070 0.875 0.08 0.939 1.44

Silver ($ per oz.) 18.78 3.80 4.94 0.001 1.08

Aluminum (cents per lb.) 3.54 1.17 3.03 0.016 1.41

Regression Equation

Gold ($ per oz.) = -51.6 + 0.070 Copper (cents per lb.) + 18.78 Silver ($ per oz.)

+ 3.54 Aluminum (cents per lb.)

Fits and Diagnostics for Unusual Observations

Gold ($ Std

Obs per oz.) Fit Resid Resid

10 448.0 341.4 106.6 2.11 R

R Large residual

First of all, from the normal probability plot, it can be seen that all the data points of the residuals lie around a straight line. This implies that the residuals can be approximated by normal distribution. This is also verified by the histogram of the residual which demonstrates a shape close to normal distribution. From the plot of residual vs fitted value, it can be seen that the data points appeared to be randomly scattered about the zero value horizontal line. This implies that the residual has no relationship with the fitted value. Therefore the linear regression model is adequate.

The coefficient of determination R2 is found to be 82.05%. This implies that 82.05% of variation in price of gold can be explained by the model. As a result, the R can be calculated by R = √82.05% = 0.9058. From the coefficients in the regression equation, it can be seen that the coefficients are all positive, and thus it is reasonable to believe that R is also positive in value, and the multiple correlation implies a strong positive correlation between the independent variables and the price of gold. Also 1- R2 = 1 – 82.05% = 17.95%. This implies that 17.95% of variation in gold price cannot be explained by the model. The adjusted R2, which take into account the effect of multiple independent variables, is found to be 75.32%. This implies that after taking into account multiple independent variables effect, the variation explained by the model is 75.32%.

The regression equation is found to be:

Price of gold ($ per oz.) = -51.6 + 0.070 Copper (cents per lb.) + 18.78 Silver ($ per oz.) + 3.54 Aluminum (cents per lb.)

The coefficient of Copper implies that given the price of Silver and Aluminum remain unchanged, when the price of Copper increase by 1 cent per lb. The price of gold is expected to increase by $0.07 per oz. The coefficient of Silver implies that given the price of Copper and Aluminum remain unchanged, when the price of Silver increase by $1 per oz, the price of gold is expected to increase by $18.78 per oz. The coefficient of Aluminum implies that given the price of Copper and Silver remain unchanged, when the price of Aluminum increase by 1 cent per lb., the price of gold is expected to increase by $3.54 per oz.

The standard error of estimate in the regression is found to be 53.4386. This implies that the standard deviation of the residual in the regression is 53.4386. The descriptive statistics for gold price alone is shown below:

**Descriptive Statistics: Gold ($ per oz.) **

** **

Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1 Median Q3 Maximum

Gold ($ per oz.) 12 0 388.1 31.1 107.6 161.1 328.8 379.3 445.5 613.0

The standard deviation of gold price alone is 107.6. Therefore with the regression model, the residual is decreased by more than half.

To check for the overall significance of the model, the hypothesis test on the slope terms is carried out.

Null hypothesis: All the regression coefficients are zero.

Alternative hypothesis: At least one of the regression coefficient is not zero.

The level of significance for the test is set to be 0.05.

From the output of the regression, the test statistic is 12.19.

The degree of freedom of numerator is 3. The degree of freedom of denominator is 8. The p-value is 0.002.

Since the p-value of 0.002 is smaller than the level of significance of 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected. Therefore it can be conclude that at least one of the regression coefficients is non-zero, and thus the overall model is significant.

For each of the regression coefficient:

For Copper, the t value is 0.08, and the p-value is 0.939. Since the p-value is not smaller than 0.05, the variable Copper is not significant.

For Silver, the t value is 4.94, and the p-value is 0.001. Since the p-value is smaller than 0.05, the variable Silver is significant.

For Aluminum, the t value is 3.03, and the p-value is 0.016. Since the p-value is smaller than 0.05, the variable Aluminum is significant.

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Social work as a professional activity draws upon a knowledge base and is guided by a set of ethical principles. Throughout this course, we will have a close look at what constitutes social work knowledge. In addition, we will explore the functions or uses of social work knowledge. All of this is underpinned by ethics and we will be constantly referring to our Code of Ethics and thinking about the challenges of ethical decision making in practice.

Social work practice is about putting together three factors: **knowledge + values/ethics + skills**

You will find this often referred to as our “practice framework”. Over the next 2 years, you will be working hard to develop your own distinctive “practice framework” to guide you on your initial foray into professional social work. Of course with experience, our practice frameworks change over time, but you might find that many core factors remain the same for you.

As social workers, we are always aiming to help our client/s, often with the desire to reduce pain or suffering or hardship, and to build resilience and capacity to help themselves in the future. One of the cardinal rules is of course to make sure that whatever action we do take, we don’t make the situation worse. In other words, DO NO HARM. I am sure that many of you can think of examples from history where actions were taken with the best of intentions (usually) and yet had terrible consequences for many people. (e.g. adoption practices in the past). This is why it is so important that social workers be confident about the knowledge-base that support our practice. We need to know why we do what we do, and what the likely impact (short & long term) will be. This is where theoretical knowledge becomes so important, as it underpins our knowledge, and therefore, our actions (practice). We need to act ethically, using interventions that are known to work or at least be beneficial.

**S****ocial Work Knowledge**

There is lots of debate about the source of social work knowledge. For a start, what do we know and how do we know it? What accounts as knowledge in social work? It is an ‘Art’ or a ‘Science’? You can ponder this question later on. However, what will be obvious from reading your text and other sources (Chenoweth & McAuliffe, 2012; Healy, 2005; O’Connor, Wilson & Setterlund, 2003) is that social work draws its knowledge from a wide range of disciplines. Can you think of some?

Not only does social work draw from psychology, sociology, psychiatry, economics, biological sciences (including medicine, genetics, environmental science), philosophy, law, the arts and more, it also has its own ‘practice theory’, drawn from the interrelationship between theory and practice experience.

So what sorts of knowledge do Social Workers need to know? We certainly need to know something about human development (stages of life), and we also need to know about social processes and institutions (power, government, ideology, law & order, social institutions like the family, religion, bureaucracies). We also need to know a lot about interpersonal, group, community and organisational dynamics.

**T****yp****es of social work knowledge**

Theory – schemas that organise or explain

Empirical knowledge – gained from research

Procedural knowledge – legislative, policy, organisational

Practice wisdom – gained from experience

Personal knowledge – common sense, cultural, intuitive (Trevithick 2012)

**D****efining theory**

According to Chenoweth and McAuliffe (2012), a theory is a way of making sense of the world. It is a way of viewing the world and explaining how objects, people and situations work (Howe, 1987). Trevithick (2012) talks about ‘informal and formal’ theories. In our daily lives, we informally theorise all the time. It is how we explain things that are happening in our lives or communities. For example, current affairs shows are full of so-called experts who theorise about why people behave the way they do, and some of the answers they come up with are a long way from scientifically valid!

There are however, many **‘formal’** theories, some of which we call *Grand Theories*, like Marxism, Liberalism, Feminism and Capitalism. Grand theories tend to try to explain how the world works, and are of course, open to debate, criticism and fashion. Postmodernism challenges all of these ‘grand’ theories, saying that there can be no ‘universal truth’.

Next we have **‘informal’** theories which incorporate broader ideas about the world and how it functions. Informal theories tend to reflect our moral, or political or cultural views and are more closely related to practice wisdom and experience.

Then there is **‘practice theory’** which guides and explains social work practice. Payne (2014 p9) talks about 4 different types of practice theories

- Perspectives (eg Humanist, Feminist)
- Frameworks (eg Systems, Ecological)
- Models (eg Task-centred or Crisis Intervention)
- Explanatory (eg Cognitive Behavioural theory)

But of course, social work practice is more than the mechanical application of knowledge or theory. Social work has a purpose, which is related to its values of social justice, human rights, equity, access, respect – in other words, its values and ethics. This is what underpins social work knowledge and practice. Our behaviour as social workers is governed by a set of principles, which are set out in the AASW Code of Ethics. Of course, acting ethically is not always clear-cut or easy. We are challenged constantly by ethical issues in practice. Finding the balance between individual autonomy, freedom and justice, as opposed to the collective good and our responsibility to society and others – can be very challenging. Our own values come into play and we need to be well aware of how our values affect our decision-making and practice.

Thus our knowledge about human behaviour, human rights, justice, oppression, duty, responsibility, racism and power helps us to think about right and wrong and the impact on others of how society is organised. Thus our practice is greatly determined by our knowledge, our professional ethics and our personal values.

**The social construction of social work theory**

Payne (2014) and others (Healy 2014, Trevithick 2012) talk about the social construction of social work theory and practice. Many of you will be very familiar with the concept of ‘social construction’ but it is still worth noting its vital importance in our practice. Payne highlights how theory and practice is socially constructed through **the interactions between clients, practitioners, the agencies we work in, as well as the political, social and cultural contexts in which we live and practice** (p 3). The good thing about having a ‘social constructionist’ perspective is that it is founded on the idea of **change**; that ‘interactions’ are constantly evolving and changing. While change is usually incremental and slow, it can also be revolutionary and sudden (eg the social revolutions in Western society during the 1960’s and 70’s).

Ideology and political views play a big part in the social construction of social work practice, particularly in the types of approaches to interventions undertaken by social work agencies. Payne talks about “the politics of theory’ (2014 p 20) and the link between these political influences on the objectives of social work practice. It is very important for you to understand these different perspectives because they influence the range of policy responses and programs implemented for different groups within society.

Payne (2014 pp 20-23) describes these as

**Empowerment**(which have their political foundation in social democratic beliefs); a therapeutic approach that seeks to empower people to achieve growth and self-fulfillment.**Social change**(politically founded on socialist beliefs about the need for emancipatory structural change, ending oppression, promoting mutuality and reducing power imbalances). It is sometimes known as ‘transformational change’ which we focus on next semester in 7062HSV.

**Problem-solving**(based on a liberalist political viewpoint) which tends to have an individual focus on assisting those in need and providing appropriate welfare services to off-set the more negative impacts of our capitalist economic system, and to ensure social stability and order.

TASK:

Now go to the Discussion Board and respond to the question posed for Week 1.

NB: Remember that your posts will form part of your assessment. I am looking for thoughtful, reflective and critically analytical responses that demonstrate your engagement with the text.

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The analysis of issues raised in the article offers an in-depth understanding of the need for change. The purpose of education is to shape an individual into a citizen with the capacity to become self-reliant. This is a complex process that requires a wide range of inputs to achieve. The need for change from classic literatures to modern texts centres on the need to capture 360-degree of education. This implies that what students read should capture both the classical and contemporary aspects of life.

This arises partly because of the difficulties teachers face in teaching classic literatures. The idea is that teachers should not feel like they are dragging students to study the novels. The drive to read should by self-instigated. This calls for a change in the choice of what students read and methods of delivering the content.

Another aspect to consider when choosing between the two texts is the overall purpose of reading. First, reading helps students become better thinkers. Reading forces students to contribute his or her own interpretations and reconstruct the mind of character. It can also broaden students’ imagination and sensitivity towards our environment. However, this can only be achieved by ensuring that materials we read offer the above purposes. Classic literatures have often been hailed as the great books that “come down to us bearing upon them the traces of readings previous to ours, and bringing in their wake the traces they themselves have left on the culture or cultures they have passed through language and customs” (Gupta, 13) The books are written in noble language and teach important lessons about human nature. The language and the lessons they teach can be passed down from generation to generation.

Contemporary texts on the other hand keep us in touch with the current views of the society. There is no problem in changing from classic to contemporary if the objectives of reading are achieved. However, to achieve a comprehensive purpose of reading, it important that teachers find a balance between classic literatures and contemporary texts.

This raises the important aspect of the importance of reading literature. Literature acts as an important source of pleasure to readers and listeners. Students face a lot challenges and stress during their lives. Literature can serve a source of entertainment that also plays an important role in performance improvement. Reading literature also plays an important role in building experience. Students who read literature reap the benefits of expanded knowledge through various experiences and relationship with the characters in the literature. Literature enables them to meet new people, gain new experiences and visit new places. They discover the common values that human share and the challenges that all humans go through. This information plays the fundamental role in expanding their horizons and handling emotional aspects of their lives.

In addition to the above, literature improves language model for students. Good literature exposes students to correct word use, sentence patterns and structure and good grammar. The students also learn from new vocabularies woven into the stories. This offers the opportunity to sharpen their language skills, becoming better readers as well as writers, which is an important aspect of expression that all students acquire in the course of their studies. A critical review of the beneficial outcomes of reading literature reveals that these benefits are not only confined to students. Reading literature helps all people acquire the capacity to deal with problems and challenges. By finding out the problems of others in the literature and learning lessons on how the problems are handled, one develops the insights into dealing with own problems. From the above discussions, it is recommended that teachers achieve a perfect balance between classic literature and contemporary texts. This is because a drastic shift from classical literature to the modern texts may not work best in the interests of the students and teachers. The benefits and critical lessons of classical literature, especially their noble language and lessons on human nature are likely to be left out. A gradual change is therefore proposed as an effective approach in undertaking this change.

However, there is consensus that reading literature presents a wide range of beneficial outcomes to learners. These include being sources of entrainment, developing literacy and thinking skills, improving language skills and enhancing visual literacy.

]]>A study conducted in the US revealed that Asthma is a key communal health predicament in the over the past three decades. It approximated that over 20 million adult Americans had asthma, as well as roughly 6 million children. Since 1980, the asthmatic cases have doubled and affected so many families all over the world. Redd also approximates the number of people who have died from this fatal disease to be 5,500 persons per year since 1980s, and these rates have continued to increased. The study also indicates that the rates of the death, visits at the emergency department, and hospitalization among the African Americans are three times higher than among the white Americans.

In addition, the expenses of asthma have dramatically increased to over 30 billion dollars in 2013. I have witnessed my younger brother go through a lot of anguish due to Asthma. We used to play and do athletics together until when he was eight years. At this age, he often complained of feelings such as heavy chest and breathing difficulties. This made him frequently take some rest as we were playing. As his chest grew tight, he often started to heave and breathe. This disease has troubled him for a better part of his life as it is incurable. His experience has made me have the interests of researching more on Asthma. Hence, this paper majorly focuses on the symptoms of Asthma, its causes, spread and the treatment.

Asthma: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Cost.

It is evident from several studies and findings that individuals with a history of asthma in their families are extra prone to asthma attacks. Childhood asthma has as well affected millions of young people and their families. A larger percentage of children who get asthmatic do so before they are five years old.

Causes

Asthma is an ailment that affects the functioning of the breathing passages that transmit air to and from an individual’s lungs. The cause is persistent inflammation of the breathing airways. Hence, this makes a person who is asthmatic to be extremely sensitive to a range of trigger. A number of internal and external factors can trigger the inflammation to cause the swelling of passages, and they become filled with mucus. The lungs of the asthmatic individuals are always more sensitive to various triggers which irritate the lungs. These triggers are often tiny protein particles known as the allergens, and they include pollen, animal dander, strong chemicals, dust particles, and moulds. The non-allergic triggers may include or polluted air, smoke, change in weather, or cold air. One can be sensitive to one or more triggers. The muscles that in the breathing airways always contract, leading to further contraction of the passages. This contraction complicates the exhaling process, hence difficulty in breathing out. This exhaling struggle causes the archetypal symptom and signs of asthma (Weiss, Sullivan & Lyttle, 2000).

Symptoms

Major symptoms of those who are asthmatic include wheezing (hissing sound when one is breathing), coughing, chest tightness and breathing difficulties. Most asthmatic individuals experience the above-mentioned symptoms normally early morning and during the night. These asthmatic symptoms may worsen during exercises, when one has a cold, or the individual is highly stressed (Akinbami, Moorman & Liu, 2011).

Treatment

To date, there is no cure for Asthma though the symptoms are controllable with effective management and diagnosis. This may involve following a prompt prescription by the medics and learning how to avoid the triggers that cause the allergic reactions. The physicians prescribe a daily use of the controller medications and should therefore not be taken lightly or ignored. These controller medications consist of inhaled corticosteroids, budesonide, mometasone, ciclesonide, flunisolide, beclomethasone and other.

Costs

Besides the causes, symptoms, and the treatment of asthma, I learnt that Asthma is very expensive. Financially, the impact of asthma is roughly 60 billion dollars in every single year in the US (Weiss, Sullivan & Lyttle, 2000). This stands for the lost wages, missed school and work, medical costs, and early death that result from asthmatic attacks. Medication for the uninsured and the insured is quite expensive, as a majority of the insured asthmatics in the US was not capable of affording their medication. Though the current patient assistance programs may help in decreasing the financial and social impact of asthma, the outcome is that its medications are costly. Besides the medication costs there is the risk of losing of a job in cases of severe asthma, or having to take care of an asthmatic child.

In the US asthma is the top cause for children to miss school as well as the fourth top reason of a grown-up to miss work. Hence, I learnt that asthma is an expensive incurable disease that requires proper patient attention and that the patient should be consistent in following the doctor’s prescription in order to save future costs and expenses.